Our current body of scientific knowledge, known as Standard Theory, is a patchwork of ideas handed down from a much simpler time. These ideas have survived, not because they give us a deep understanding of our world, but because they at least give us reasonable, functional models. But we have now moved beyond the point where mere models are enough -- we want answers and understanding. The Final Theory now has these answers -- for the first time in human history. It is the embodiment of a famous theory, known as the Theory Of Everything, sometimes referred to as the Unified Field Theory, which has been sought for centuries but has eluded all efforts until now. Finally we have true scientific explanations for everything, and not just simplistic working models.
Chapter 1 -- Investigating Gravity
The Theory of Gravity
A brief summary of gravity is given in the context of one of the four fundamental forces in nature (gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force).
The Trouble with Gravity
Gravity has many problems in today's science. The convenient model of an "attracting force" matches appearances rather well, but where does this mysterious force come from? Why does it attract? Why not repel instead? Where is its power source? Arbitrary forces can't simply arise and affect us in our daily lives without explanation, yet that is precisely what today's science says about gravity. The excuse offered by scientists today is that gravity does no work at all, despite holding us on the ground, constraining planets in orbit, and orchestrating all of the dynamics in the heavens. An equation known as the Work Equation-- developed over a century ago to quantify the work done in moving an object -- has been seriously distorted and misapplied in a failed attempt to justify Newton's "gravitational force". This Work formula has been systematically misapplied over the years to ensure it gives a zero result in gravitational situations so that scientists can claim that gravity does no work throughout the universe and so needs no power source, rather than admitting that gravity is a mystery to them. Newtonian gravity also violates the speed-of-light limit -- a current law of physics -- since it has no speed limit at all. Einstein even felt the need to completely rethink the nature of gravity (his warped spacetime concept), while today's scientists are still looking for answers, such as quantum gravity and superstrings, while desperately looking for proof of their theories in hunts for "graviton particles" and "gravity waves". Gravity is one of the most familiar experiences known to man, yet still one of the greatest mysteries in science.
The Origin of Newton's Gravitational Force
Before we can solidly discuss what gravity truly is, we need to understand the origin of our current belief in Newton's gravitational force. This discussion shows that Newton actually invented his force using a flawed analogy of a rock swung by a string, and perpetuated this error by creating an entire system of concepts and equations based on his invented force. It is now possible to see how he did this, revealing the true form of these concepts and equations and showing that Newton's overlay of a "gravitational force" somehow emanating mysteriously from all matter was a completely unnecessary and fatally flawed invention.
Does the Evidence Support a Gravitational Force?
The fact that objects are held forcefully on the ground or accelerate downward when dropped does not prove Newton's gravitational force. These are undeniable effects -- a weight effect and a downward acceleration effect -- which we experience, observe, and measure, but whose cause has been a mystery for millennia (and remains so to this day in our current science). In fact, even our equations for falling objects and flying projectiles don't involve mass or Newton's gravitational force -- they only model the downward acceleration effect (d=1/2*a*t2), compliments of Galileo. In fact, it would be quite an unprecedented feat for any known force to accelerate all objects with equal ease regardless of mass, yet this is precisely the claim made in our science for Newton's gravitational force, since all objects fall at the same rate. Also, why can't we shield ourselves from Newton's gravitational force and levitate? We have shields for every other known force and field (electricity, electric fields, magnetic fields, light, radio waves, radioactivity), so why is Newton's force so special and different? In actuality, gravity is not a mysterious attracting force emanating from matter with no known power source. Nor is it Einstein's warped spacetime concept or any of the other increasingly bizarre theories in today's science. It is something else entirely -- something much more sensible and much simpler to comprehend.
Chapter 2 -- Encountering the New Principle
A New Property of the Atom
The proper understanding of gravity starts at the atomic level. Gravity is not a mysterious force somehow possessed by all subatomic and atomic matter, as thought today, but an entirely new mechanism that begins only at the atomic level -- a side effect of a related new subatomic principle described in Chapter 4. The new atomic principle, inspired partly by the well known Flatland tale and partly by Einstein's "space elevator" thought experiment, explains all known gravitational effects clearly, simply, and in a scientifically sound manner for the first time ever.
Can It Be?
Numerous ideas, often wild and bizarre, are commonly tossed about today regarding gravity and the nature of our universe -- both from inside and outside the scientific community -- but so far none are sensible or even scientifically viable. The true test of any such sweeping new idea is whether it truly explains everything -- consistently, sensibly, and within the laws of physics. The new gravitational principle in this chapter is applied to many of our common daily experiences -- the weight of objects, falling objects, the crushing force within the center of our planet, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, etc.
Mysteries And Violations Resolved
In addition to showing how the new principle explains all common gravity-related observations and experiences, it is also shown to resolve many mysteries currently surrounding gravity in our science. The power source driving all objects to fall at the same rate is now demystified, the belief that we will some day discover "graviton particles" or "gravity waves" is put to rest, gravity violating the speed-of-light limit is resolved, etc. Finally, the new and proper equation for gravity is developed, showing that Newton's equation is, and always has been, an arbitrary invention of no practical use, replaced now by the true equation of gravity with clear physical justification behind it.
New Revelations and Possibilities
The new understanding of gravity shows that Newton's hypothesis of a gravitational force acting both at the surface of the planet as well as remotely tugging on distant objects was wrong. The force that we feel while standing on the planet is one component of gravity, while the falling and orbiting effect upon objects at a distance is a closely related but distinct component of gravity. This has sizable implications for spacecraft that orbit and land on other moons and planets, and helps to explain the huge discrepancies that astronomers note between gravitational predictions and observations, which have led them to believe that mysterious "Dark Matter" and "Dark Energy" somehow rule the universe. It is also revealed that, contrary to today's belief that has persisted since Galileo's time, all objects do not fall equally -- they fall nearly equally, with the differences easily explained and calculated using the new equation of gravity. Also, with the clear understanding of the true nature of gravity, the possibility of anti-gravity is definitively addressed once and for all. A very simple "artificial gravity" device is also revealed, which would not have been considered prior to this new concept of gravity.
Chapter 3 -- Rethinking Our Heavenly Observations
The new concept of gravity explains not only our earthbound experiences and observations, but those in the heavens as well. Orbits are now explained simply and naturally as a separate component of the gravitational effect felt at the surface of the planet, requiring no appeal to today's endless pulling force with no known power source.
The Gravitational Lens Effect
The fact that light bends as it passes large objects in space on its way to Earth is also easily explained from the new gravitational perspective, removing the need to explain how Newton's gravitational force pulls on pure light energy, or the need to resort to Einstein's even more mysterious and equally unexplained 4-dimensional warped spacetime concept.
The Nature and Origin of Tidal Forces
Since the new understanding of gravity drastically redefines our current notion of a gravitational force mysteriously reaching out from massive objects to pull on other objects remotely, it is necessary to address ocean tides and other tidal effects. In actuality the moon does not pull on our planet to cause ocean tides -- a very different and quite straightforward phenomenon causes this effect. A number of other observations that are currently and mistakenly attributed to Newtonian gravitational tidal forces, such as the pull of Jupiter on passing comets, are analyzed and correctly rethought.
The Slingshot Effect
There is an odd maneuver in today's space programs and astronomy where objects mysteriously pick up speed as they pass planets -- and retain that increased speed even long after passing the planet. Known as the slingshot effect, or "gravity assist" maneuver, it has been observed and used extensively, but remains a complete mystery in our science. A close look at the current attempts to justify or explain it shows that they fall apart under even moderate scrutiny. However, the new concept of gravity easily explains this phenomenon.
To conclude the discussion of gravity, the new gravitational principle is applied to the galactic level, showing that the complete replacement of gravity as an "attracting force mysteriously emanating from matter" clears the way for a resolution of the crisis in astronomy today where galactic structure and motion is completely unexplained. Scientists now routinely state that 90% of the mass in the galaxy is "missing", and must be some type of mysterious "Dark Matter". Another current fashion is the belief in "Dark Energy" permeating the universe. Such bizarre beliefs only spring from our current misunderstanding of gravity, and can be shelved now that the true understanding of gravity has arrived.
The Origin of a Natural Constant Revealed
Chapter 4 -- Rethinking the Atom and its Forces
One of the hallmarks of the true Theory Of Everything, once it arrives, is that it shows the origin of our natural constants in clear physical terms. Although such a feat has never been achieved before, it is done here for the first time ever. Newton's "gravitational constant", G, found in his classic equation of gravity is derived here for the first time ever from clear physical first causes. The new atomic-level concept of gravity is applied to the simplest atom in nature, the Hydrogen atom, and equated to the equivalent gravitational force that Newton would have predicted. In this equivalence, Newton's gravitational constant is left as the only unknown. The only way for the correct value of this constant to emerge from this equality is if the new gravitational concept is the true description of gravity, since it is used here as a replacement for an actual physical experiment that would typically be equated with Newton's calculation. Even though the physical experiment is dispensed with and replaced by a purely theoretical calculation based on the new concept of gravity, the correct value and units for the "gravitational constant" still emerge.
Flaws in Current Atomic Theory
We have become so accustomed to the atomic models we have been taught that even our scientists neglect to consider that these are still mere models, which violate both the laws of physics as well as common sense when taken as the literal reality. We are taught that the nucleus mysteriously generates an endless "positive charge force" that pulls on the equally endless "negative charge force" of orbiting electrons. There is no explanation for the source of this apparently endless power output from both nucleus and orbiting electrons, nor is there any theory detailing a power drain from this effort. Further, the closely packed, strongly repelling positively charged protons in the nucleus are said to be kept from flying apart by another mysterious attracting force (Strong Nuclear Force) that for some unexplained reason only appears between protons when they are extremely close to each other in the nucleus. Again, this apparent attracting force in nature is completely unexplained, as is its unending power source. Atomic structure stays together and intact like this for billions of years with no explanation. Further, objects made of atoms also remain together, often under great mechanical stresses and strains. Again, this tremendous ongoing effort of atomic bonds holding together as molecules is completely unexplained. Endless strong nuclear force energy, endless positive charge energy of protons, endless negative charge energy of orbiting electrons, endless atomic bond energy and even endless gravitational energy emerging from atoms .. all at the core of today's science and all completely unexplained. This is the result of our science legacy from a much simpler time that still remains blindly accepted and completely unexamined by today's scientists.
A New Atomic Model
The new concept of gravity at the atomic level arises from an equally new, related concept at the subatomic level that resolves all of the mysteries and flaws in today's current atomic theories, both the simplistic Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom as well as today's mysterious quantum-mechanical twist on this model. Strong Nuclear Force energy as well as positive and negative charge energy are now clearly explained in simple, scientifically viable terms. The electric charge model of protons and electrons is completely rethought, as is the nature of the inner dimension of the atom, and replaced with a much simpler and far more scientifically viable atomic model, which also clearly shows how the new concept of gravity emerges at the atomic level. One basic principle permeates all of nature, just as expected from the Theory Of Everything when it arrives.
The new subatomic principle now easily explains the apparently endless chemical bond energy holding objects together.
As mentioned in relation to atomic theory, electric charge is a complete mystery in today's science. Benjamin Franklin invented this concept as a useful model of observations, but never truly explained it. Two statically charged objects suspended from strings at a distance from each other will pull toward each other and remain angled toward each other against gravity indefinitely, as long as no external influence in the environment around them intervenes. There is no known power source supporting this endless effort, yet it is simply accepted as normal by today's scientists and educators. The new subatomic principle replaces this flawed concept with the proper understanding of electric charge observations, resolving the mystery of electric charge and electricity in general via the same basic principle that runs throughout the book.
The phenomenon of radio waves somehow emanating from oscillating electric charges in a wire is another completely unexplained facet of today's science. Electrons only carry a certain negative charge, which is unchanging -- that is the very definition of an electron. Yet, somehow these unchanging negative charged particles manage to "emit radio wave energy" as they oscillate. Precisely how this energy transformation happens in clear physical terms is completely unexplained, as is the emission of energy from electrons in an antenna wire whose individual charge never changes. Electrons are merely accelerated and decelerated repeatedly, driven to do so by the power source, while mysteriously transferring, transforming, and radiating radio wave energy. This mystery is resolved in clear physical terms by the new subatomic principle that runs throughout nature.
Chapter 5 -- Rethinking Energy
Magnetism is another mysterious and completely unexplained phenomenon in today's science. A block of wood will not cling to a refrigerator, yet a permanent magnet will. What is the difference? Magnetic energy, of course. So where is the power source for this energy that allows a heavy magnet to cling endlessly against gravity, and even hold other heavy objects as well? You won't find any answers in today's science -- only the same flawed "Work Equation" explanation attempt offered for gravity, mentioned in Chapter 1. The mystery of magnetism is solved here, again via the same new subatomic principle.
Light and Electromagnetic Radiation
Light itself is yet another complete mystery in our science, as is all electromagnetic radiation. Electrons flow through a filament and emerge at the same speed and with the same charge as when they entered the filament, yet light and heat emerge from the light bulb. No matter how this issue is viewed, a close examination shows that this deep mystery remains and has no resolution in today's science. We have abstract "circuit theory" equations for balancing battery output with light bulb output, but no hard physical explanation for the actual event of light emission itself in the filament. The new subatomic principle not only explains this mystery, but shows the true nature of light itself in clear physical terms -- something that has mystified and divided scientists for centuries (the energy-wave theory / photon-particle theory debate regarding the mysterious dual nature of light). All mysteries surrounding light are revealed and removed via the same simple new principle shown to run throughout nature. In fact, the very nature of energy itself can now be reviewed and completely explained for the first time ever.
Quantum Mechanics -- is it all just a Misunderstanding?
Yes, it is. One of the support pillars of quantum mechanics is the supposedly bizarre dual nature of light as sometimes an energy wave and sometimes a stream of photon particles. This support pillar is completely removed when the true nature of light is revealed, showing this supposed "quantum mechanical mystery" to be a mere misunderstanding. In actuality, waves of pure energy do not exist anywhere in nature. The water wave analogy commonly used to support the energy wave concept is seriously flawed since water waves are merely wavelike motion of countless particles (water molecules). In actuality, the "energy wave" concept has no support at all, and is debunked and replaced by the same new subatomic principle that runs throughout the book. All other apparent support for quantum theory is equally debunked and clearly explained for the first time ever, such as Einstein's photoelectric effect, quantum entanglement, and the classic double-slit experiment.
Special Relativity -- is it all just a Mistake?
Chapter 6 -- The Big Questions
Yes, it is. The errors all started with the classic Michelson-Morley experiment, whose mysteries can easily be shown to be due to a very simple misunderstanding that has gone unexamined and uncorrected for over a century. Einstein and others ran with this, inventing the completely unnecessary and clearly flawed Special Relativity Theory. The mathematical support for this theory presented by Einstein can easily be shown to be full of fundamental flaws and elemental errors. The experiments and thought experiments commonly repeated as evidence for this theory are also easily shown to be erroneous or simple misinterpretations that have far simpler explanations, especially in view of the new understanding presented in the book. Among the clearly flawed evidence that is exposed and debunked are: Einstein's own derivation of his Special Relativity equations, mass-increase experiments for subatomic particles in particle accelerators, various time-dilation experiments, the classic Twin Paradox thought experiment, particle half-life experiments, the classic Traveling Light Beam thought experiment, and more. This analysis even shows that the speed-of-light limit currently accepted as a universal truth is actually a completely made-up human invention that does not exist at all, either for energy transmission or for spacecraft.
What are Subatomic Particles?
The true nature of subatomic particles can now be revealed and clearly understood by this point in the discussion, showing surprising revelations about protons and neutrons, as well as the mysterious "particle zoo" of dozens of odd and bizarre particle types that are routinely claimed to exist by physicists today. In actuality, this dizzying, bizarre world of subatomic particles is simply a misunderstanding of a far simpler, commonsense subatomic reality that, again, follows simply and naturally from the same new subatomic principle running through the book and through all of nature.
What is Antimatter?
The mysterious and bizarre concept of antimatter is debunked and exposed for what it really is -- again, a simple, commonsense manifestation of the new subatomic principle.
What is an Atom Bomb?
The mysterious transformation of "matter into energy" is shown to be largely a misunderstanding of a much more physically straightforward concept that occurs in these devices.
E=mc2 -- What is Energy/Matter Conversion
The mystery is removed from Einstein's famous equation, and its simple physical meaning revealed for the first time ever.
What Causes Inertia?
Today's science is further than it has ever been from answering this question -- so much so that our scientists believe they will answer it simply by finding evidence for the existence of the "Higgs Boson" particle and filling in its mass and charge values in a table. This is clearly a naive, completely unexamined flawed belief since they can fill in any arbitrary values they wish now and do anything they wish with these values in their theories or algorithms in today's extremely powerful computers, yet they have no idea what inertia is still. In actuality, this fundamental question can only be answered by the fundamental rethink of our science offered in The Final Theory, which does indeed answer this deep question for the first time ever.
What are Black Holes?
Black Holes are said to be regions of such immense gravity that even light can't escape. Yet, not only are all manner of other forms of radiation known to shoot out of "Black Holes", but the very nature of "Black Holes" as burnt-out, collapsed stars means that we shouldn't even expect light to emanate from them any more than we would expect light from burnt-out, smashed light bulbs. Stars are the main light source in the heavens, and the fact that a burnt-out, collapsed star is a prerequisite for a "Black Hole" to form shows that there is no credible evidence for the claimed extreme gravitational force "holding the light in". Black Holes are completely re-explained according to the new principle.
Did It Really begin with a Big Bang?
This tired, severely flawed theory in our scientific legacy can now be definitively dispensed with and replaced with a far more likely, viable explanation.
Is Our Universe Truly Expanding?
The concept of a universe that is not only expanding, but accelerating its expansion due to mysterious "Dark Energy" is yet another clearly flawed belief. But further, it is a belief that our scientists already know better than to follow since it is based on the completely unsupported assumption that distant Red-Shifted light is explained by the same Doppler Effect as shifted sound frequencies. But light is such a completely different phenomenon than sound that this is an extremely speculative assumption. But also, light is widely known to be Red Shifted by other far simpler causes, such as merely passing through plastics and gases of all sorts. The fact that light appears Red-Shifted after traveling billions of light years through space, which is filled with all manner of radiation, particles, and materials should surprise no scientifically educated individual, and lends no particular credibility to the belief in an ever-accelerating expanding universe with no known power source, driven by some sort of mysterious "Dark Energy".
What is Time?
Any true Theory Of Everything should be expected to address the mysterious beliefs surrounding time in today's science, and indeed The Final Theory does. All of today's mysteries are debunked and shown to be completely unnecessary misunderstandings and inventions. Events are driven purely by energy, not some mysterious puppeteer called "time". And since the true nature of energy itself was explained earlier, time itself -- along with all of its associated mysteries found in today's science -- is now completely understood.
Is Time Travel Possible?
Now that time itself is clearly explained, we can finally think clearly and sensibly about the concept of time travel. Is it a real possibility or purely science fiction?
The Theory Of Everything -- Has it Finally Arrived?
The concept of the famous Theory Of Everything is now revisited, showing that all of the expected characteristics of this much-sought-after theory can be found in the pages of The Final Theory -- a feat that has never before been achieved. Yes indeed this final theory has arrived, though it is up to each individual reader to see and verify this for themselves.